Radiology is using X-rays and other imaging methods for diagnosis and treatment in medicine.
Radiology is grouped into two main departments:
What are radiologic tests?
1. RADIOGRAPHY: It is one of the main diagnosis methods and uses x-rays. Radiography is grouped into two:
DIRECT RADIOGRAPHY: With this method, an image is obtained by reflecting x-rays which pass the patient on a film. It is used to examine bone structures, lungs, digestive system, urinary system and breast.
CONTRAST RADIOGRAPHY: In this method, an external contrast material is added. A contrast material is administered orally or rectally and the esophagus, stomach-duodenum, large and small intestine are examined. The urinary tract can also be examined by administering contrast material intravenously (voiding cystourethrography, excretory urography, cystography). As in percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), biliary tract examinations and fistulography are among the radiography methods with contrast material.
2. ULTRASONOGRAPHY: It means converting sound energy into image using high frequency sound waves. As it does not include radiation, it is a great advantage for using in infants and pregnant women.
Ultrasonography is generally used for imaging the neck, thyroid gland, liver, gallbladder, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, urinary bladder, uterus, ovaries, scrotum, testicles and prostate gland.
Doppler ultrasonography is a special form of ultrasonography. This method allows for examining blood flow, flow direction and flow rate in the vascular bed.
3. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (CT): Computed tomography is a diagnostic method which creates a sectional image of a certain part of the body using x-rays. With technological advancements, single section helical and multidetector CT devices significantly reduced examination times. Detailed vascular analyses and 3 dimensional images which allow for virtual endoscopic practices are obtained using thin sections obtained with multidetector CT devices. With contrast material injection only through the veins, it is possible to examine venules such as coronary veins besides other veins.
4. MAGNETIC RESONANCE (MR): Magnetic resonance is a diagnostic method which creates a sectional image using radio waves in a strong magnetic field created with large magnets. MR does not include radiation. Moreover, it is possible to examine multiple organs without administering contrast material. It can be used in pregnant women only when absolutely necessary.
5. INTERVENTIONAL RADIOLOGY: Interventional radiology includes diagnostic procedures such as scopy, ultrasonography, CT and MR accompanied angiography and biopsy and treatment procedures such as drainage of abscess and liquid collections, stents placed for treatment of vein and canal contractions.